Omissions? [166] Avian life includes the corncrake, red-throated diver, rock dove, kittiwake, tystie, Atlantic puffin, goldeneye, golden eagle and white-tailed sea eagle. [113] Initially successful, the colonists were driven out by local forces commanded by Murdoch and Neil MacLeod, who based their forces on Bearasaigh in Loch Ròg. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The Collins Encyclopedia of Scotland describes the Inner Hebrides as lying "east of the Minch", which would include any and all offshore islands. [182][183], Coordinates: 57°50′N 7°00′W / 57.833°N 7.000°W / 57.833; -7.000, Rollinson (1997) states that the oldest rocks in Europe have been found "near Gruinard Bay" on the Scottish mainland. [131] The Old Norse name for the Hebrides during the Viking occupation was Suðreyjar, which means "Southern Isles"; in contrast to the Norðreyjar, or "Northern Isles" of Orkney and Shetland. Thompson (1968) provides a more literal translation: "Fire played in the fig-trees of Liodhus; it mounted up to heaven. Today, before in-home weaving takes place, the washing and dyeing of sheared wool as well as its blending and carding into embryonic yarn, along with the spinning and warping processes, occur in factories, to which the woven tweed returns for finishing and stamping. [135], Ironically, given the status of the Western Isles as the last Gaelic-speaking stronghold in Scotland, the Gaelic language name for the islands – Innse Gall – means "isles of the foreigners"; from the time when they were under Norse colonisation. [141], There were, however, continuing gradual economic improvements, among the most visible of which was the replacement of the traditional thatched blackhouse with accommodation of a more modern design[142] and with the assistance of Highlands and Islands Enterprise many of the islands' populations have begun to increase after decades of decline. Hebrides, group of islands extending in an arc off the Atlantic (west) coast of Scotland. "Loch Druidibeg National Nature Reserve: Where Opposites Meet".

"The ancient geography of Scotland" in Smith and Banks (2002) pp. This brings us up to 98,000 records in all. [4] The discovery of substantial deposits of North Sea oil in 1965 and the renewables sector have contributed to a degree of economic stability in recent decades.

(eds) (2002), Ballin Smith, Beverley; Taylor, Simon; and Williams, Gareth (2007), Downham, Clare "England and the Irish-Sea Zone in the Eleventh Century" in Gillingham, John (ed) (2004), This page was last edited on 30 October 2020, at 11:03. In 1886 an act of Parliament gave the crofters (tenant farmers) security and heritability of tenure. Map showing the Location of The Outer Hebrides.

The etymology of Skye is complex and may also include a pre-Celtic root. [98][99] In the Western Isles Ketill Flatnose may have been the dominant figure of the mid 9th century, by which time he had amassed a substantial island realm and made a variety of alliances with other Norse leaders. The best-known textile enterprise is the manufacture of Harris tweed, which traditionally has provided a part-time occupation for the crofters. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.

[120][121], The early 19th century was a time of improvement and population growth. Lewis and Harris is the largest island in Scotland and the third largest of the British Isles, after Great Britain and Ireland. The chief islands of the crescent-shaped chain of the Outer Hebrides are Lewis and Harris, North Uist, Benbecula, South Uist, and Barra.

The summer days are relatively long, and May to August is the driest period. He mentioned neither the druids nor the name of the island. [73] The origin of the Gaelic for "Hirta"—Hiort, Hirt, or Irt[74]—which long pre-dates the use of "St Kilda", is similarly open to interpretation. [76], The etymology of small islands may be no less complex. The following are the ten largest in the Hebrides and their outliers. The wildlife of the Hebrides is particularly rich and includes red deer, wild goats, Highland cattle and ponies, and, on Soay Island, a primitive wild sheep. ... On the island Papavray … Search (Main) Search (Emigrees) Register; Maps. [169] There is a small population of red-billed chough concentrated on the islands of Islay and Colonsay. However the name of the island is made-up to conceal the identity of the place that she worked. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. [167][168] The latter was re-introduced to Rùm in 1975 and has successfully spread to various neighbouring islands, including Mull. The main islands of the Inner Hebrides are Skye, the Small Isles (Canna, Sanday, Rhum, Eigg, and Muck), Tiree, Mull, Colonsay, Jura, Islay, and Coll. In the Outer Hebrides the average temperature for the year is 6 °C (44 °F) in January and 14 °C (57 °F) in summer. The Islands; Maps; Timelines; Articles; Gallery; Hebrides People. These princelings nominally owed allegiance to the Norwegian crown, although in practice the latter's control was fairly limited. 11-13, Gammeltoft, Peder "Scandinavian Naming-Systems in the Hebrides - A Way of Understanding how the Scandinavians were in Contact with Gaels and Picts?" In relation to Dubh Artach, R. L. Stevenson believed that "black and dismal" was a translation of the name, noting that "as usual, in Gaelic, it is not the only one.

Announcing our NEW encyclopedia for Kids! Writing about 80 years later, in 140-150 AD, Ptolemy, drawing on the earlier naval expeditions of Agricola, writes that there are five Ebudes (possibly meaning the Inner Hebrides) and Dumna. A considerable number of islesmen "came out" in support of the Jacobite Earl of Mar in the 1715 and again in the 1745 rising including Macleod of Dunvegan and MacLea of Lismore.

"The Industries of Argyll: Tradition and Improvement" in Omand (2006) pp. Tourism and the oil industry are also important economic engines. For example, the Arnish yard has had a chequered history but has been a significant employer in both the oil and renewables industries. [165] However, these islands provide breeding grounds for many important seabird species including the world's largest colony of northern gannets.

[152] Sorley MacLean, the most respected 20th-century Gaelic writer, was born and raised on Raasay, where he set his best known poem, Hallaig, about the devastating effect of the Highland Clearances. [180][181], Hedgehogs are not native to the Outer Hebrides—they were introduced in the 1970s to reduce garden pests—and their spread poses a threat to the eggs of ground nesting wading birds. [177], Loch Druidibeg on South Uist is a national nature reserve owned and managed by Scottish Natural Heritage. The small island of Rhum became a Nature Conservancy Research Centre in 1957, specializing in the study of the local geology, flora, and fauna. Newton, Michael Steven. This may have been a reference to the stone circle at Callanish. Lv 7. All of these singers have repertoire based on the Hebridean tradition, such as puirt à beul and òrain luaidh (waulking songs). The Naughty Little Book of Gaelic: All the Scottish Gaelic You Need to Curse, Swear, Drink, Smoke and Fool around. No saint is known by the name of Kilda, and various theories have been proposed for the word's origin, which dates from the late 16th century. [130][131] For a few centuries, the military might of the Gall-Ghàidheil meant that Old Norse was prevalent in the Hebrides. Disturbances continued until the passing of the 1886 Crofters' Act.[128]. Today, they are also known as the Western Isles, although this phrase can also be used to refer to the Hebrides in general. S. and SIMPSON, D.A. The Hebrides have a diverse geology ranging in age from Precambrian strata that are amongst the oldest rocks in Europe to Paleogene igneous intrusions. North of Ardnamurchan, the place names that existed prior to the 9th century have been all but obliterated. [150] Allan MacDonald (1859–1905), who spent his adult life on Eriskay and South Uist, composed hymns and verse in honour of the Blessed Virgin, the Christ Child, and the Eucharist. Election 2020 Map; Coronavirus; ... Mingulay and Barra Head. The Hebrides’ Celtic inhabitants of the 1st millennium ce suffered from Viking raids after the 8th century and were eventually placed under Viking sovereignty until 1266. The Outer Hebrides are administered as the Western Isles council area.

The islands are subdivided into two groups—the Inner Hebrides to the east and the Outer Hebrides to the west—which are separated from each other by channels called the Minch and the Little Minch. The Hebrides are known for their unique natural features. (1960) ", Gillies (1906) p. 129. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. [93], The first written records of native life begin in the 6th century AD, when the founding of the kingdom of Dál Riata took place. The best known find is the Lewis chessmen, which date from the mid 12th century. [153] Aonghas Phàdraig Caimbeul, raised on South Uist and described by MacLean as "one of the few really significant living poets in Scotland, writing in any language" (West Highland Free Press, October 1992)[154] wrote the Scottish Gaelic-language novel An Oidhche Mus do Sheòl Sinn which was voted in the Top Ten of the 100 Best-Ever Books from Scotland.

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